A few facts about the pyramids

There is an Arabic proverb that says, "Everything fears time, and time fears the pyramids." Even time is afraid of the pyramid, what kind of miracle product?

Standing in front of the pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx stood steadfastly over its sleeping ruler, leaving potable wonder.

And as we walk into the largest of them all, and the largest in Egypt, the pyramid of Khufu, we see a series of amazing "coincidences" behind the grandeur and magnificence:

The circumference of the base of Khufu's pyramid, if divided by twice its height, yields a quotient of 3.14159 -- the familiar PI; And its accuracy is far more than the Greek PI 3.1428, and Zu Chongzhi calculated PI (3.1415926- 3.1415927) is almost exactly the same. In addition, the right triangle chamber inside the tower has a ratio of 3:4:5 to each side, which is consistent with the Pythagorean theorem.

Of course, netizens also found more statistical coincidences, such as "The base of Khufu's Pyramid is 230.36 meters long, which is 361.31 cubits (Egyptian units of measurement), which is about the number of days in a year," or even "it's hard to imagine that the ancient Egyptian people had such wisdom 4,000 years ago."

And what is said to be ironclad evidence. Inside the pyramid of Khufu, a scroll in hieroglyphics was found describing a survivor of what was called a flying carriage that crashed near Cairo some 5,000 years ago. The so-called "survivors" were the designers of the pyramids, which were intended as a sign to inform their counterparts in outer space to come to their rescue.

There are even murals of an alien spaceship on top of the pyramid - pyramid discoverer Dr. Ishadullah pointed out that THE spaceship is shaped like an inverted dish.

In the face of these coincidences, which are not coincidences, we have to be contemplative. Have arrogant modern people fallen into the trap of "evolution", believing that human society, including the technological level of various industries, must be a straight line of continuous rise?

If nothing else, doesn't the level of craftsmanship displayed in the mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin still baffle scholars? Until a successful way is found to preserve the colors of the terracotta warriors and horses, preservation is the best protection.

Even the cynical technology big V Musk, has been quite lively pointed out that the Egyptian pyramids are alien man-made! Later, Rania al-Mashat, Egypt's minister of international cooperation, shouted from the air that Mr. Musk knew about Egypt and the history of the pyramids 39bet-xsmb-xổ số tây ninh-xổ số binh phước-xổ số binh dương-xổ số đồng nai.

It is true that ancient people could not enjoy the convenience of the current information age. However, since the birth of human beings, they have experienced millions of years of complicated survival and evolution. From the ancient Egyptian civilization to today, in the long river of history seems to be only a moment of spray. Who are we to say that hominins couldn't do it and turn to the extraterrestrial explanation?

In fact, if we explore the formation and development of the early states in ancient Egypt, we can understand why the pyramids were possible -- although it may still be difficult for us today to fully uncover how they did it.

1fdbae6fcf429afea75cffa53ddd16b7The pyramid was not built in a day

There are three types of pyramids: step pyramids, curved pyramids and ramped pyramids.

From the stepped shape to the curved shape, and then to the well-known slope of the Great Pyramid, we can see the ancient Egyptian civilization gradually mature level of technology.

The Step pyramid was built early in the Third Dynasty by the first or second pharaoh Jothel. It was built up a massive staircase leading up to the vault of heaven.

Step pyramid

The curved pyramid, which was built in the Fourth dynasty, the Snevru period, has gone from a stepped shape to a more smooth slope -- it's all stitched together, you know. To this day, people still can not fit paper into the cracks in the wall, which shows the stability of the combination.

Pyramid of bending

Unfortunately, the curved edge of the pyramid is at a curved Angle, with a steeper slope in the lower half and a gentler slope in the upper half. In the beginning, the ambitious Sneflu may have tried and failed to build a tall, steep pyramid; Eventually the court architect had to change the plan halfway through, slowing the slope of the pyramid.

On the north side of the curved pyramid, Sneflu tried again and succeeded in building history's first truly sloping pyramid, the "Red Pyramid" with a pink limestone core. His successor, Kunum Khufu, built the largest pyramid in Egypt, the Pyramid of Khufu, decades later.

Pyramid of Khufu

But it's not that simple. The Step pyramid didn't spring up on the Nile.

The pyramid age of ancient Egyptian civilization started from the fourth dynasty and continued to the Sixth dynasty. Almost every monarch built a huge pyramid for himself as a tomb, especially in the fourth dynasty.

However, as early as the first and second dynasties, also known as the "Early Dynasty", the original body of the pyramid, the tomb of the Mastaba, has already appeared. It was a large rectangular tomb used in the Early dynasty and the Old Kingdom to bury royalty and high officials. In fact, in the early dynasty, most of the senior officials were royal relatives.

Mastaba Tomb, the word comes from the Arabic word for bench, because it looks like a bench

"Mastaba" is named by modern scholars because its trapezoidal aboveground structure resembles an Arab bench. Around the tomb, there are worship temples for worship.

Purely from the appearance, the step pyramid seems to be very different from the Mastaba tomb. However, scholars have found that the step pyramid is evolved from the Mastaba tomb, showing transitional features in architectural structure, materials and style after investigating the overall architectural patterns of the two.


The Early dynastic period lasted for about three centuries, during which the framework of Egyptian civilization was basically put in place, directly reflected in the tomb works that the dynastic empire took most seriously.

What we think of as "alien products" are the crafts that have been honed by patient and Stoic human beings over the past 300 years.

Why do you want to build the pyramid?

Nor is it a coincidence that the pyramids appeared in ancient Egyptian civilization.

The creation myth of ancient Egypt reveals the ancient Egyptians' cognition of the origin of the world -- at the beginning of the world's creation, primitive mounds rose from the chaotic waters.

Isn't that how the Nile Delta was formed? For the inhabitants of the Nile, the delta means farming and harvest, and the hope and joy of life. Naturally, it is abstracted as a sacred symbol and worshiped by the world.

Therefore, both the mound of the temple of the early dynasty and the step pyramid, as well as later pyramids, are symbols of the original mound. Thus, the sleeping king was allowed to rise and live a transcendent life in the other world.

Sacrificial temples of the early dynasty show that royal power and divine power have been tightly bound together. The king is the highest priest, is the embodiment of the god Horus, representing god in the world to rule.

In the Third dynasty, King Jothel built the first step pyramid.

The transition from the Mastaba to the step pyramid was a leap forward in the history of mausoleum construction in ancient Egypt. The rise of the step pyramid is probably related to the rise of sun God worship. The Pyramid was a ladder through which the king could enter the realm of the gods.

The material of the step pyramid is also interesting. It was the first time the craftsmen had tried to build a large stone building, but there were many traces of wooden construction -- or, rather, of solid stone, a resting place for King Jothel that would never decay.

In the fourth dynasty, at the beginning of the Pyramid Age, the king Snefru built three pyramids: the stepped pyramid, the curved pyramid, and the ramped pyramid.

The step-ramp pyramid in transition, also known as the Pyramid of Medum, is built in a very different way. It has a stepped core and was probably originally intended to be a step pyramid, but then the steps were filled in and turned into a ramp pyramid.

This may represent a shift in perception. If the step pyramid represents the step to heaven after the death of the king, then the smooth slope pyramid may represent the rays of the sun. The figurative ascent may be replaced by the more abstract concept of ascent.

Thus, through the pyramid, the worship of the Sun God and the king became one, and the sacredness of the monarchy was strengthened. When a king dies, his work on earth is over, and his people pave the way for him to become a God.

At that time, Egypt established a political system combining royal power and divine power. The core of the king's rule was the worship of the people to the pharaoh's deified power.

For the people of the King of Egypt, when they were building the pyramids, they were feeding their gods.

How are resources allocated in pyramid construction?

Some speculation about the construction of the pyramids

Such a large building as the pyramid, is bound to consume a huge amount of financial and material resources, more importantly, human resources. Especially after the Fourth dynasty, almost every Egyptian monarch built pyramids.

How did ancient Egypt sustain the consumption of a nation that built one giant tomb after another? The answer lies around the pyramids.

Archaeologists have discovered the remains of a small town on the Giza plateau. It was built around the time of the construction of the Great Pyramid of Khufu, and its ancient name is hard to pin down. According to the available information, it was a village of craftsmen made for pyramids -- neat streets, identically styled dormitories, workers' canteens... All traces of careful planning.

The ruins of the artisan village near the pyramids

There are even separate resources and daily space for the "family of craftsmen" who live in the area. It is easy to imagine that thousands of years ago, this quiet and desolate place had come and gone, with its own regular life.

In addition to the village of craftsmen responsible for the construction of the pyramids, the barracks were surrounded by a special administrative center, which archaeologists call the "royal office building," which served as both a material distribution center for the village and a general headquarters for the construction of the project.

In the process of building the pyramids, the ancient Egyptians adopted a modular management system, with workers divided into "battalions" and "regiments." Below the battalions, there were subgroups, each with its own name, such as "Friends of Khufu," "followers of Khufu's powerful white crown," "Friends of Menkaura," and so on.

Apparently, as a specialized town, the artisans don't produce. So where do they get the resources to feed, clothe, and shelter them?

This will start from the early dynasty period sprout "royal manor" system. The so-called "royal manor", as the name implies, is an administrative unit established and managed by the royal family. However, it not only refers to a certain piece of land owned by the royal family, but also includes various agricultural, handicrafts and other means of production, as well as the most important population.

It can be said that "royal manor" is a management unit for the purpose of organizing production. Estates throughout the country formed a vast network of production and distribution, placing the distribution of agricultural and handicraft resources throughout the country under the direct jurisdiction of the crown.

As a result, the resources of ancient Egypt were integrated, and the efforts of the state became a legitimate system. The inhabitants of the manor provided the village with an endless supply of resources, which eventually turned into the solid stones of the pyramid.

Some speculation about the construction of the pyramids

How did the workers in the village build the pyramids?

The prevailing view is that the "slope method" was used, in which stones were manually transported to high places by building inclined planes. However, scholars have not been able to agree on the form of construction of the inclined plane.

It is thought that the ancient Egyptians built a straight slope with sand around the pyramid, and then pushed the stones through the slope, and then built the stones layer by layer. It is also believed that sloping ramps are built in a zigzag pattern around the pyramid, so that they take up less space and are less laborious to build.

No matter which method, will consume huge manpower, material and financial resources. This is why the construction of the pyramid calls for both a highly centralized political system of monarchy and a deeply rooted expression of religious and theological ideas -- the former providing the conditions and the latter ensuring the motivation.

The pyramidal state structure

While the Egyptians were building the pyramids, the pyramids were also shaping Egyptian civilization. The early state form of ancient Egypt was essentially an abstract pyramid -- the construction project became the center of economic activity, and the structure of state institutions and the form of resource allocation were based on it.

For example, the system of "royal manors" mentioned above was based on the integration of national resources to meet the demand for pyramid construction. This is not just about the mode of production, but also about social redistribution -- the highly centralized planning that underlies Egypt's economic system.

Egypt's administrative system is also pyramidal. This may also be the basic construction of the early frontier state. That is, power is highly centralized and decentralized, while the lower levels provide support for the upper levels. The provincial system, for example, was established in the early dynasty, allowing the king to keep resources firmly in the hands of the central government through the appointment of local officials.

But the pyramid's most important role remains as a vehicle for religious belief. It carries strong religious and theological meaning, which is the most prominent feature compared with the Chinese type of imperial civilization.

Religious worship was the ideological cornerstone of ancient Egypt's social construction. The firm belief of the same origin and the belief of the Sun God made the centripetal force of ancient Egypt inclined toward the king extremely strong.

The search for ancient Egyptian civilization must also start from their beliefs, otherwise it will be defeated by the "modernity" and "rationality" that modern people are proud of. For the ancients, culture and beliefs may have been the fundamental drivers of behavior:

Just as the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, it cannot be explained in terms of economic benefits. Only by understanding the connotation of the belief in the Sun God and the divine kingship, as well as the significance of the sacrifice to the dead king, can we truly understand the motivation of the ancient Egyptians to build the pyramids.

This motivation is rooted in the idea of religion, which shapes the shape of the state. Authoritarian kingships and regimes, as well as systems of economic redistribution, were created to accommodate cultural and religious ideas.

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